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Cassette OperafingSysfem 
CDS 




FOR ALL ATARI COMPUTER SYSTEMS 




5Y5TEMS 



Eassellt QperalingSyslem 
CDS 



BY: George J. Pol ly 
(C) Copyright 1983 



An ALPHA SYSTEMS Product 



Alpha Systems presents: 

COS 

The 



Cassette Operating System 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



INTRODUCTION 2 

LOADING 4 

PACKAGE OVERVIEW 4 

COS OPTION MENU 6 

A INFORMATION 6 

B QUICK BACKUP OF CASSETTE 7 

C DISASSEMBLER 8 

D SAVE CASSETTE 9 

E LOAD CASSETTE 9 

F BINARY FILE TO CASSETTE 10 

G BACKUP CASSETTE TO DISK 11 

H MULT I SECTION FILE TO DISK 11 

I BACKUP ON DISK TO CASSETTE 12 

J DISK DIRECTORY 13 

K DISPLAY MEMORY LOCATIONS 13 

L LOAD FILE 14 

M SAVE FILE 1* 

QUICK BACKUP 14 

THE PROGRAM RECORDER 15 

LOADING PR0BLEM5 16 

MUSIC WHILE LOADING i7 

THE LOADER PROGRAM 18 

HOW TO MAKE YOUR TAPE 18 

ATARI is a trademark of ATARI, Inc. 



INTRODUCTION 



The Cassette Operating System was designed to use 
the Atari Program Recorder to its fullest potential. The 
COS and manual takes you step by step through the 
many options it offers. Everything a cassette user ever 
needs to do is contained in the COS. Including quick and 
easy backup of cassette programs. All in this one 
package !!! 

For the professional programmer COS offers you a 
quick and easy way to add "CLASS" to your programs. It 
also allows you to look at other professional programs 
and learn from their examples. It offers a easy way to 
change a disk file to an auto boot cassette. 

For the amateur user COS allow you to backup 
99.9% of com m ercial programs on cassette. No more 
accidentally erased com m ercial cassettes gone forever. 
COS backups these programs with no modification to the 
computer or Program Recorder. The COS puts 90S> of 
all com m ercial cassettes to diskette. 

The COS can do what it says. However, some 
manufactures try to protect their products from being 
copied. Some cassettes check if the disk drive is on. 
Some diskette files use the disk to load additional 
information. The COS can copy all cassettes which are 
compatible on both the original and XL series 

computers. Guarding any secret protection method, it 
can put most binary disk files to cassette and most 
cassette files to disk. 

COS is intended only to backup programs from those 
companies who do not offer backup copies of their 
programs. Alpha Systems offers backup copies if your 
first is destroyed (see warranty at any manual). The 
COS is not intended for the illegal duplication of 
copyrighted materials. Alpha systems does not promote 
software piracy. Piracy tends to raise the price of 
software and discourage software co m ;.r:nies. So PLEASE 



respect copyright laws. The only reason to copy a 
program is to make a backup copy for yourself, so your 



30 dollar program w ili not be lost tor 



e v e r • 



I A 01 N V, 



To load the CDS, first, turn on the Disk Drive, the 
T . V. /Monitor and any other peripherals. Insert the COS 
diskette, front side up, into disk drive number one. I urn 
on the Atari computer, the introduction screen will lonii 
and be displayed first. 

The introduction screen will be white and the title 
will appear on it. A short menu will appear at the 
bottom of the screen asking which part oT the CDS 
package should be loaded. It can be either the COS or 
the Quick Backup. Select one of these by pressing the 
first letter of the appropriate program ( it appears in 
inverse video ). 

After selecting the program, it will begin 

auto m atically . 

PACKAGE OVERVIEW 



The COS and Quick Backup are designed to lie 
simple and easy to use while flexible at the same time. 

Whether you are a first time computer user or a 
professional, read this manual carefully. If you do not 
understand any part or concept, do not become 

discouraged. Refer to other sources lor help. Other 
"option" instructions could help because they are similar. 

There are also many magazines which have excellent 
articles on the Atari Program Recorder and its function. 

Because program was designed to operate similar to 

Atari's DOS, you should be familiar with its operation. 

When using the COS be careful on the size of the 
cassette file which you are going to load. The COS will 
error if the file is too large, usually an error 9. The 

COS will handle up to 20,000 bytes which is sufficient 
for most cassette programs. If it is too large and you 



only want to copy it, use the Quick Backup Program for 
4BK cassette. If you wanted to modify a large program 
using the COS and it is more than one section, try 
loading just one section at a time. 

If you plan to use the COS to copy a large number 
of programs, use the Quick Backup. If you plan to use 
the COS to modify a number of programs, press the 
•RESET' key and reload after you are through with each 
cassette file. 

Before you start there are some terms which you 
must know for this manual. A section is a group of 128 
byte blocks of data. Each section has a beginning leader 
and an end. At the beginning of each section the 
computer will beep once if it is going to load a section 
and twice if it is going to save it. A cassette file is 
one to nine sections which are loaded continuously or 
one section by itself. To find the number of sections in 
a cassette file, Usten to it load. The number of sections 
will be the number of times the computer beeps (a very 
short tone emitted from under the keyboard on the 400's 
and 800's, emitted as a low tone from the TV speaker 
on the XL series). The beeps will be followed by a brief 
period of silence. 

A disk file is a ordinary disk file as explained in 
the DOS manual. A filename is the name given to a 
disk file. To enter a disk filename, enter the device, 
filename, and extention, then press the 'RETURN' key in 
the following format (refer to your DOS manual for 
more information). 



FORMAT: D n:filena m e.ext EXAMPLE: 

D1:G A M E.B AS 
To properly position a tape for a save, you will 
have to advance the tape past the leader until the tape 
itself (brown) can be seen. Otherwise, a long leader may 
not end before the computer begins to save. 

Any questions which the COS will ask are to be 
answered and then followed by pressing the 'RETURN' 



key. In m ost cases pressing 'RETURN' without entering 
anything else wili abort the option and return to the 
option screen. 

IT you encounter an error, the computer will beep 
twice" and the current operation will be aborted. Some 
com m on errors and their causes follow. If its not listed 
refer to an Atari Manual. 

ERROR 138 : cassette not connected or 'PLAY' and 
•RECORD' not pressed 

170 : filename wrong or not on the disk 

143 : cassette is bad (won't load) 

144 : bad sector or write protector is on 
140 : cassette is bad (won't load) 



COS OPTION MENU 



When the COS loads, the option menu will be 
displayed. It is red and lists the options. Below the 
menu is a prompt asking for a selection from the option 
m enu. 

The m enu can be display again by pressing the 
'RETURN' key. Pressing any other key will begin the 
corresponding option. 



A. INFORMATION 



This option gives information on the file which is currently 
loaded into the COS. This information will aid in the disassembly 
of the file. The advanced programmer can use this table to modify 
a files size, sections or contents. 

Once the 'A' key has been pressed, the COS will ask whether to 
print the table or not. Pressing the *Y' key and then 'RETURN' 
will print the table on a standard printer. Any other response 
will cause the table to be printed onto the screen. 

The table will display the number of sections and amount of 
free memory left. It will display the length, start, and end of 
each section and all the sections combine in both decimal and 
hexadecimal . 

After the table is printed, the COS will ask whether you wish 
to modify the table or not. For example, the COS can be used to 
load a file from cassette and modify the information table so the 
COS will save only part of the original file. It can also combine 
two sections into one. The possiblities are endless. Table 1 lists 
those things which you can change. 

To modify press the 'Y' key and then 'RETURN'. Any other 
response will return to the option menu prompt. If you choose to 
modify, the COS will prompt you to the changes which can be made. 
The original values will be displayed. If you choose not to modify 
press the 'RETURN' key and the original values will stay the same. 



TABLE 1 



OBJECT VALUE 

SECTIONS 1-9 

START OF FILE 17800 - 30000 

LENGHT OF FILE 1 - 30000 



B. QUICK BACKUP OF CASSETTE 



Ihe quick backup option allows you to load a cassette file and 
then save it immediately. Use the save file option to make any 
additional copies of the cassette file. 

After pressing the 'B' key, enter the number of sections in 
the file to be backed-up. Now, press 'PLAY' on the Program 
Recorder and the 'SPACE' bar to begin. 

Wien the file is finished loading, insert a blank cassette 
into the Program Recorder, this time, press 'PLAY' and 'RECORD', 
and press the 'SPACE' bar. Ihe x COS will make a backup copy of the 
original file. Mien finished it will display the option menu. 



C. DISASSEMBtER 



The COS disassembler can be used to change a file into 
assembler code which can be saved, printed or modified. Ihe saved 
version is compatible with the Atari Assembler Editor and other 
assemblers. The disassembly is in the standard 6502 assembly code. 
The first column is the memory location in decimal. The second 
column is the memory location in hexadecimal. The third column is 
the 6502 mnemonic and addresses. The final column is the ASCII 
code of the object code. If you chose either the printer or the 
screen, you will also receive the data in hexadecimal between the 
second and third columns. If this assembly is used with a 
assembler, the memory location in decimal becomes the line number 
and the memory location in hexadecimal becomes the label. If you 
choose the printer the final column will not be printed. 

After pressing the 'C key, the destination menu will app>ear. 
It will ask which device to send the assembly to. Press an 
appropriate letter for a device, or press the 'RETURN' key to 
return to the option menu. 

After pressing the appropriate letter, three prompts will 
appear which are answered by typing either a decimal number or a 
hexadecimal number proceeded by a dollar sign, then press the 

8 



'RETURN' key. For example, the location 512 may be entered by 
typing '512' and 'RETURN', or '$0200' and 'RETURN'. The first 
prompt will ask for the address of the starting location of the 
disassembly ( this can be obtained from the information table ). 
If you chose anything but the screen as a output device, enter the 
ending address, which is the point at which the disassembler will 
stop. The final prompt will ask for the imaginary starting 
location. This is the location which the assembly should be in but 
is not. For example, if the file you are disassembling is stored 
by the COS at location 17000, but it normally loads at 5000. Enter 
17000 as the real address, and 5000 as the imaginary address. The 
imaginary address should be used to simulate a computer load. If 
in doubt make this location the same as the real starting 
location. The real location will appear on the same line as the 
imaginary prompt, just press 'RETURN' to choose it. When finished 
with the final prompt, the COS will begin to disassemble. 

Once the COS is disassmebling, it may be paused by pressing 
'CONTROL' and ' 1 ' simultaneously. To return to the destination 
menu and stop dissassembly , press the 'RETURN' key. To change the 
imaginary address when disassembling, press the 'A' key and enter 
the imaginary address (when using the same imaginary as real you 
may enter the real address here). For example, if a line of code 
reads 'BNE 409A' , to continue disassembly at location $409A press 
'A' and enter '$409A*. If the restart disassembly address is at a 
constant location such as $E456 the COS will not disassemble at 
the proper location, unless the imaginary address is the same as 
the real address. To disassemble at $E456, return to the 
destination menu, and use $E456 as the real and imaginary address. 
As a general rule, if the address is with a branch command it will 
work; if it is with a jump command be careful. 



D. SAVE CASSETTE 



This option is used to save a file which has been previously 
loaded into the COS. 

Once the 'D' key has been pressed, insert a properly 
positioned blank cassette. The COS will beep twice to signal when 



a save will take place. Press 'PLAY' and 'RECORD', and then press 
the 'SPACE' bar to begin saving. Ihe file will he saved to 
cassette. 



E. LOAD CASSEITE 



This option is used to load a file from cassette into the COS. 
Once it is in the memory, modify it, examine it, or save it using 
the save cassette option. 

First, enter the number of sections and press the 'REIURN' 
key. Next, position the cassette at the beginning of the file to 
the beginning, then enter the number of sections the file 
contains. The COS will beep once to signal when a load will take 
place. Press 'PLAY' and 'RECORD'. Press the 'SPACE' bar to begin. 
When it is finished loading, the COS will return to the option 
menu. 



E. BINARY LOAD PILE TO CASSETTE 



This option can be used to take any binary disk file and save 
it to cassette using a special COS binary loader program. Ihe 
cassette file may be loaded like any other machine language file. 
The binary loader program is loaded from disk, so do not remove 
the disk from the drive until the COS prompts you to do so. 

After pressing the 'E' key, enter the filename of the disk 
file to be put on cassette. Do this by typing: the device, 
filename, extension and then press the 'RETURN' key. For example, 
' Dl: SMASH. 0B0' would take SMASH. OBJ from disk drive #1. Keep the 
COS diskette in the disk drive. When the COS asks you to insert 
the COS diskette with binary loader on it, press the 'SPACE' bar. 
When the COS asks you to insert the source diskette with the file 



you want to to put to cassette, press the 'SPACE' bar to load it. 

Wien the file is loaded the computer will beep twice for save. 
Press 'PLAY' and 'RECORD' on your Program Recorder. Press the 
'SPACE' bar to begin the save. Ihe COS will automatically save the 

file and display the option screen. 

To load this file from cassette, press the 'START' key 
('START' and 'OPTION' on XL's) while turning on the computer. 
Position your cassette and press 'PLAY' on the Program Recorder. 
After the computer beeps, press the 'RETURN' key to load. 

For those of you using the COS as a development tool, the 
binary loader program can be modified to display the title of the 
program which it will load. This can be accomplished by making one 
copy using option 'F' then use option 'K' to modify the binary 
loader (it will be in memory). Next, save the cassette file. 



G. BACKUP CASSETTE TO DISK 



This option is used to backup a cassette program from the COS 
memory onto a diskette. The program will be only a data file which 
will not run. However, they are much safer on a diskette. 

First, enter the filename which will become the data file for 
the cassette. To begin the save, press the 'SPACE' bar. The 
program will then be backed up to diskette. It can be loaded from 
disk and saved to cassette using load backed-up cassette option 
CI'). 



H. MULTI SECTION FILE TO DISK 



This option is used to save a cassette file to diskette. V*ien 

entering this option, all of the other options and anything in the 

COS memory will be lost. To go back to the COS, reload the COS 
diskette. 

11 



Af-ter pressing the 'H' key, place the COS diskette into the 
disk drive. Press the 'SPACE' bar. Any cassette file in the memory 
will be lost. Ihis option begins with the COS prompting you to 
enter the number of sections. Insert the cassette and press the 
'SPACE' bar to load. Mien the cassette has loaded insert a disk 
into drive one. Ihe COS will ask whether the program is BASIC or 
not. Answer using r Y' or 'N' and then pressing 'RETURN'. If it is 
BASIC, you will be asked if it is self boot or not. A self hoot 
cassette is loaded by holding down the 'START' key while turning 
on the computer. Otherwise its not a self boot. Mien finished with 
the options, press the 'SPACE' bar to write the program on the 
disk. Vvhen it is finished, press 'RETURN' to do another cassette. 
Press 'A' to make another copy. 

If at any time an error occurs the COS will give an error 
message and return to the number of sectors prompt. lo load a disk 
created with COS simply insert the disk into the drive and turn on 
the computer ( if it is BASIC use the BASIC cartridge). If it is a 
BASIC program and does not self boot, turn on the computer with 
BASIC inserted. V*ien the 'READY' propnit appears, follow the 
instructions given with the program. 



I. BACKUP ON DISK TO CASSETTE 



A cassette file which has been saved as a data file to 
diskette (using the back-up cassette option 'G'), can be loaded 
from a disk file, then saved back to cassette using the Save 
Cassette option. The cassete file will be identical to the 
origianal cassette file. 

Enter the filename of the disk data file on diskette. Next, 
insert the diskette containing the file and press the 'RETURN' 
key. Use the Save Cassette option to put it to cassettte. 



J. DISK DIRECTORY 

12 



Ibis option allows the user to list all of the files on a 
diskette, and the number of sectors each uses. 

When the COS prompts for a drive number, press the number of 
the drive to be listed, then press the 'RETURN' key. To use drive 
number one, just press the 'RETURN' key. 



K. DISPLAY MEMORY LOCATIONS 



This option may be used to display data from any memory 
location in hexadecimal and Atari ASCII codes. Any memory 
locations can then be modified to suit your needs. 

After pressing the '1^,' key, the COS will prompt for a 
beginning, loaction to be displayed. This can be entered in 
hexadecimal or decimal. The next 128 bytes from this location will 
be displayed. The first number to be displayed is the memory 
location in hexadecimal. The next eight numbers are what the 
locations contain in hexadecimal. The final column is the same 
memory location in Atari Internal Code. 

< : display back 128 bytes 

> : display next 128 bytes 

: move cursor up 

: move cursor down 

: move cursor left 

: move cursor right 

SPACE : modify byte under cusor 

RETURN : exit option 

When the data is finished being displayed, a cursor will 
appear on the first byte of the display. This will be your 
pointer. Use the following list of commands to modify a byte or 

13 



exit the mode. When changing a byte, enter the byte in hexadecimal 
or decimal. When finished, the cursor will return to the byte 
modified on the screen. Pressing the 'RETURN' key will exit this 
mode and return you to the option menu. 



t. LOAD FILE 



This option is used to load a disk file to form the lost 
section of a cassette file. The information table can then be used 
to switch it with any section you wish. 

The Cos will prompt for the filename of the disk file to load. 
Enter the filename and press the 'RETURN' key. Insert the correct 
diskette, and press the 'SPACE' bar to load. 



M. SAVE TILE 



This option is used to save a section of a cassette file to a 
disk file. The information table can be used to modify the 
beginning and end of a cassette section, then use this option to 
save it to a disk file. 

A prompt will appear asking which section is to be saved. 
Enter a number, between 1 and the number of sections in the 
cassette file currently loaded. Press the 'RETURN' key to abort. 
After entering, insert the correct diskette and press the 'SPACE' 
bar to save. 



QUICK BACKUP 



I he (}uick [Backup is designed to copy a cassette program up to 
nine sections and 40K. The status line on the screen will ask for 
the number of sections use the option key to choose. Press the 
'OPTION' key to increase it by one. After it reaches nine, the 
letter 'A' will be displayed. This letter will let you make a 
second copy of the program which was loaded before. After the 'A', 
the number of sections will return to one. 

To start the copying process, press the 'START' key. After the 
computer beeps once, press the 'SPACE' bar, and it will load the 
program. Mien loaded, the computer will beep twice. Insert a blank 
cassette and press 'RETURN' to save. To make another copy, use 'A' 
as the number of sections. 

If at any time an error is encountered, the status line will 
turn red. Press 'SYSTEM RESET' to start over. 



THE ATARI PROGRAM RECORDER 



The Atari Program Recorder is actually a regular stereo tape 
recorder with minor added features. A stereo recorder is different 
from a regular recorder because it has to separate tracks which 
store information. These tracks are defined as left and right (see 
figure 1) . 

The left track is called the audio track. It stores audio such 
as voice or music. This audio is played through the speaker in 
your TV or monitor. Normally it is blank. 

The right track is called the digital track. It stores 
information in digital form such as a program or information which 
a program uses. Only the Atari computer can understand this 
seemingly noise. It, too, is played through the audio speaker of 
your TV/monitor. 

The information on the digital track is made up of only two 
different sounds. One is the space and the other is the mark (they 
are 3995 Hz and 5327 Hz respectively). These marks and spaces make 
up the information which the computer uses. They represent bits. 
Ten bits make one byte. This may seem strange, but the first and 

15 



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last bit are not used, [hey are a space for start and a mark tor 
stop. These bits are on the tape at 6LXJ baud or 600 bits for every 
second. Ihese bits are stored on the tape in groups. Each group 
contains 132 bytes of data. The first two bytes are markers for 
speed (the Atari can adjust for speed). Then a control byte, 128 
data bytes and a checksum. The control byte can tell if the record 
is full, half full or the end of a section. The checksum is all 
the bytes added together to show if the recorder has read correct. 



LOADING PROBLEMS 



A common problem with the Atari Program Recorder is its 
inability to load and save with 100% accuracy. This is mainly 
because it is not a high quality product and its user does not use 
high quality tape. 

If your recorder is not loadino tapes made on the recorder 
itself, the problem is most likely the problem of the quality of 
the tapes you use. The best tape for your Atari is a high quality 
audio or digital tape of a short lenght. A discount type tends to 
lose information. A long tape tends to be too thin. We recommand 5 
to 15 minute digital tapes or 30 minute Maxwell or TDK. 

If your recorder is not loading tapes made on a different 
recorder, the problem is most likely tape alignment. This is 
caused by the two tape heads reading and writing at two different 
locations. However, this can be fixed by turning the head adjust 
screw. But be aware, the tapes you have made previously on your 
recorder may not load. The proper way to load a tape from another 
recorder would be: to adjust your tape head, to load the tape, and 
turn the it back to the original position when saving. An 
alternative to tape head adjusting is to bring the two recorders 
to the same computer. Load it into the COS with one and save it 
back onto the other recorder. 

Adjusting the tape head is not difficult, but it can be moved 
off alot if you adjust it too much. Try it at your own risk. To 
find the screw, press 'PLAY' with the cover open. It is the screw 

16 



on the left of the read/write head. You can turn it with a small 
Phillips screwdriver. Make sure you mark the original position of 
the screw and number of turns moved, in case you want to put it 
back. To adjust put a the tape in under the cover (not in!) press 
•PLAY'. While in BASIC, POKE 54018,52 to turn on the recorder 
motor. Turn your TV/monitor volume until the computer sounds like 
its loading. Now turn the screw a small amount at a time until the 
sound is loudest. And that's it, it's adjusted. 

MUSIC WHILE LOADING 



Are you tired of hearing buzzes in your sleep after a long day 
of computing? Do you reach for the the volume control when you 
load a program? Or do you just want to add touch of class to your 
program? If you said yes to any of these questions then read on!!! 

In this section of the manual we will tell you how to make a 
cassette that will play your favorite music or anything you want 
while your program is loading. 

Before we explain how to do it we will explain how it works. 
The Atari Program Recorder was designed to be able to play music 
while a program is loading. The audio track which normally is 
empty is where your music will go. If you already had a tape set 
up with the program on the digital track and your music on the 
audio track, when you loaded it, you would notice a problem. The 
music and the buzzes would come through the TV or monitor speaker 
at the same time. It would still load but it would not sound good. 
There is a way to stop this. If you POKE a into memory location 
65 the computer will stop any sounds which come from the digital 
track. You could POKE 65,0 before you load your program in the 
immediate mode or create a loader program which does it for you. 



THE LOADER PROGRAM 

This loader program we have made will do several things. First 

17 



it will put on the screen LOADING. . .PLEASE WAIT so you have 
something to look at while the program is loading. You can change 
this to what ever you wish. Second, it will POKE a into location 
65 which shuts off excess noise. third, it will continue to load 
your program. When it is finished it will run it automatically! 



(HOW 10 MAKE YOUR TAPE 



The method we are going to describe is not the only way to 
make your tape, but we believe it is the best. The only extra 
things you will need are : an audio cassette recorder, masking 
tape, cassettes and your favorite music. 

First, take your program and save a backup copy on a cassette 
(not the cassette that will have the music on it). Next type in 
the loader program. CSAVE the loader program on the tape which the 
music will be on BEFORE Y00 RUN IT!!! When the loader program is 
run the computer will attempt to load and clear the memory. After 
you save the program, do not rewind the cassette but advance it a 
couple inches. To put music on the cassette use an audio cassette 
recorder. The music should be about as long as it takes the 
program to load. If the music is longer than your program you 
might want to fade it out when appropriate. 

Now we come to the tough part. Normally when saving a program 
on the Program Recorder, it erases both tracks of the cassette 
before recording. To record your program on the the digital track 
and leave the audio track alone you must place a small piece of 
masking tape on to the erase head (see figure 2). It will be 
easier to put the tape on the head if the 'PLAY' button is 
pressed. DO NOT PUT THE TAPE OVER THE TAPE GUIDE which is the 
pronged piece on the side of the tape head. 

Take the program which has the loader program and music on it. 
Rewind the tape and load the loader program. Once this done type 
NEW to clear the memory. Do not rewind the tape but take it out 
and set it aside. Next load your program and save it on the tape 
you set aside. You have just finished. 

18 



Before you check the cassette you should take off the masking 
tape and clean the erase head with a cotton swab and alcohol. 

Now you are ready to load your tape. Rewind the tape and type 
CtOAD "to load the first part. Wien READY appears type RUN and 
press the 'RETURN' key. Sit back and enjoy!!! 



t 1 S T I NG 1 

10 GRAPHICS 7-16 

20 POS I T ION 0,5 

30 ? #6;" LOADING..." 

40 ? #6;" please wait" 

50 FOR 1 = 1536 TO 1554:READ A:P0KE I,A:NEXT 1 

60 POKE 65,0 

70 POKE 764,12 

80 I -USR( 1 536 ) 

90 DATA 162,253,154,169,18 3,72 

100 DATA 169,84,72,169 

100 DATA 4,32,182,187,169 

110 DATA 255,76,4,187 



19 



c 

-s 






- 1M1 ILU HflKKW I Y 



Alpha Systems warrants the original purchaser of this 
computer software product that the recording medium on which the 
software programs are recorded will be free from defects in 
materials and workmanship for ninety days from the date of 
purchase. Defective media returned by the purchaser during that 
ninety day period will be replaced without charge, provided that 
the returned media have not been subjected to misuse, damage, or 
excessive wear. 



Following the initial ninety day warranty period, defective 
media will be replaced for a replacement fee of $6.50. 



Defective media should be returned to: 

ALPHA SYSTEMS 
1012 SKYLAND DRIVE 
MACEDONIA, OH. 44056 

in protective packaging accompanied by: (1) a brief statement 

describing the defect; (2) a $6.50 check or money order (if beyond 

the ninety day warranty period); (3) your return address; (4) the 
problem disk. 



WHAT IS NOT COVERED BY THIS WARRANTY 

THIS WARRANTY DOES NOT APPLY TO THE SOFTWARE PROGRAMS THEMSELVES. 
THE PROGRAMS ARE PROVIDED "AS IS". 



THIS WARRANTY IS IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, WHETHER ORAL OR 
WRITTEN, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING 
IMPUTED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR 
PURPOSE, ARE LIMITED IN DURATION TO NINETY DAYS FROM THE DATE OF 
PURCHASE. ALPHA SYSTEMS SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR INCIDENTAL OR 
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGE FOR BREACH OF ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED 
WARRANTY. 



The provisions of the foregoing warranty are subject to the 
laws of the state in which the disk is purchased. Such laws may 
broaden the warranty protection available to the purchaser of the 
disk.